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An important aspect of information literacy is learning how to use information ethically by citing sources and observing fair use.

Style Manuals

When citing sources, be sure to use a conventional bibliographic style. Most disciplines have a standard style that writers are expected to use. Each style will specify a uniform way of citing sources that will: 

  • Give an orderly appearance to your bibliography;
  • Provide all the essential elements of information that a reader will need to locate the source.

    A citation must include:

    For books and nonprint materials: For periodical articles:
    • author 
    • title 
    • place of publication 
    • publisher 
    • date 
    • author 
    • title 
    • periodical title 
    • volume number or date of publication 
    • page numbers 

Your professor may require you to use a particular bibliographic style. If you are unsure, ask your professor. Below you will find three commonly used bibliographic style manuals that show how to cite a variety of sources, including documents from the Internet: