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What In-Text Citations Can Look Like


Dr. Seuss’s book, children are encouraged to eat green eggs and ham (56-62). Neither eggs nor ham is naturally green, and this color should alarm parents. When eggs are not refrigerated, the infectious disease Salmonellosis is a big concern. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says that some victims will feel “pain in their joints, irritation of the eyes, and painful urination” (“Salmonella”). There are similar concerns about green ham. Letizia describes how under-cooked pork can carry a deadly parasite, resulting in Trichinosis (1073). In severe cases, its victims “may have trouble coordinating movements, and have heart and breathing problems.” Death is rare but does occur (“Parasites”). If the child avoids this infection, he or she still might experience a dangerous allergic reaction (Huber 147, 160).


**Highlighted Portions are only for your benefit. Do not highlight anything in your paper.

In-Text Citations

MLA 9 requires two citations for every source you use: one within the paragraph where you reference it and also at the end on your Works Cited page.

In-text citations (or parenthetical citations) point your reader to specific entries on the Works Cited page. They usually include the author or source name and the page number, when relevant. In-text citations are  used whenever you quote, paraphrase, or summarize information from a source. You can cite references either within the text, or at the end of a sentence:


In-text citation at the end of a sentence:    

Some researchers strongly dispute the Committee's conclusion (Smith and Jones 10).


Author name as part of a sentence:           

Smith and Jones dispute the Committee’s conclusion (10).


Source cited within another source:

Clark’s study (qtd. in Smith and Jones 10) indicates that…

In this situation, your Works Cited page will contain the article by Smith and Jones. Clark is merely credited in the text of your paper.


One, or two authors

(Jones 7), (Dunn and Diaz 44)

Three or more authors

(Phipps et al. 45)

Organization as an author

(United States, Dept. of Labor 221)

Govt agency website with no author, use title


**(the agency will be the publisher in the full citation)

No page number


No author- use the first word of the book


No author- use the first word of the article title


To clarify the author, if necessary

(N. Smith 9)

If you have used more than one work from the same author

(Smith “Project” 194)

If the information comes from multiple sources

(Smith 6; Jones 55)


(Miller 9; act 1, scene 2)

Identifying location in a film or video

(Big Bang 00:03:16)

If a quotation appears at the end of a sentence

The Committee reported “street repairs are ongoing” (Jones 52).